The breath ammonia measurement of the hemodialysis with a QCM-NH 3 sensor

Hitoshi Ishida, Toshio Satou, Kiichi Tsuji, Norimichi Kawashima, Hideo Takemura, Yasuhiro Kosaki, Seimei Shiratori, Tetuzou Agishi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


Recently, expired gases are analyzed non-invasively for monitoring the substances in the blood. Breath ammonia has been shown to correlate with BUN (blood urea nitrogen) and Cr (creatinine), both of which are indicators of solute removal in hemodialysis. In this study, breath ammonia concentration was continuously measured using a crystal oscillator QCM (quartz crystal microbalance) during the expiration of patients undergoing dialysis treatment. The results show that NH3 (ammonia) decreased gradually as the treatment proceeded. A strong correlation was observed between changes in the frequency of the QCM gas sensor and both the pre-dialysis BUN level (r=0.71, p<0.05) and the post-dialysis BUN level (r=0.90, p<0.05). NH3 was found to fall precipitously during dialysis. The differences were statistically significant. In addition, we found a statistically significant correlation between BUN and NH3 in expired gas. These results suggest that continuous measurement of NH3 is useful to assess the status of solute removal during hemodialysis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)99-106
Number of pages8
JournalBio-Medical Materials and Engineering
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • BUN
  • Cr
  • Expired gas
  • Hemodialysis
  • Non-invasive analysis
  • QCM

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering


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