The package redelivery problem, convenience store solution, and the delivery desert: Case study in Aoba Ward, Yokohama

Shun Nakayama, Wanglin Yan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


The redelivery problem occurs when a delivery service cannot deliver an item to the recipient on the first attempt, requiring one or more additional attempts. There are impacts on profit, efficiency, convenience, traffic, and the environment. In recent years, the redelivery problem in Japan has been aggravated by the growth of e-commerce, which increases delivery volumes. As a solution, many convenience stores offer courier package pickup services, but the actual net benefits are uncertain. In this industry, store locations are chosen based on profitability and subject to laws and regulations. This study developed a model to assess the accessibility of convenience stores and their possible contribution to solve the redelivery problem. We defined a “delivery desert” as area where a resident cannot access the nearest convenience store package pickup service within walking distance, and developed a model that considers physical load relative to customer age and topographic slope. We then conducted a case study in a suburban neighborhood in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area and showed that (1) about 65% of residents in the study area live in a delivery desert, (2) regulations that restrict the location of convenience stores have a very small impact on our results, and (3) the percentage of people living in a delivery desert is low for the age groups targeted by convenience stores. These findings could serve as a reference in policy discussions for solving the redelivery problem.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)355-363
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Urban Management
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Dec


  • Accessibility
  • Convenience store
  • Delivery desert
  • GIS

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Urban Studies
  • Public Administration


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