The Reference Frame of Robotic Limbs Contributes to the Sense of Embodiment and Motor Control Process

Kuniharu Sakurada, Ryota Kondo, Fumihiko Nakamura, Masaaki Fukuoka, Michiteru Kitazaki, Maki Sugimoto

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Citation (Scopus)


The robotic limbs using a body remapping approach often follow either the user's reference frame 1) fixed outside the user's body (Space frame), 2) centered on a user's torso (Torso frame), or 3) centered on a user's head (Head frame). In this study, we investigate the effect of the reference frame on the sense of embodiment and the user's motor control process. We asked 12 participants to perform some point-to-point tasks with the virtual robotic limbs remapped to the participants' feet. The virtual robotic limbs tip followed the participants' feet and each reference frame condition (Space frame, Torso frame, and Head frame). As a result, the reaction time, the movement straightness, and the movement priority were significantly high rate in the Torso frame condition. The subjective score on the sense of embodiment showed that the reference frame condition contributed to the sense of embodiment.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of Augmented Humans Conference 2022, AHs 2022
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)9781450396325
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Mar 13
Event2022 Augmented Humans Conference, AHs 2022 - Virtual, Online, Germany
Duration: 2022 Mar 132022 Mar 15

Publication series

NameACM International Conference Proceeding Series


Conference2022 Augmented Humans Conference, AHs 2022
CityVirtual, Online


  • motor control process
  • reference frame
  • robotic limbs
  • sense of embodiment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Computer Networks and Communications


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