The relationship of dry eye disease with depression and anxiety: A naturalistic observational study

Momoko Kitazawa, Chiaki Sakamoto, Michitaka Yoshimura, Motoko Kawashima, Sachiko Inoue, Masaru Mimura, Kazuo Tsubota, Kazuno Negishi, Taishiro Kishimoto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: In recent years, the relationship between dry eye disease (DED) and psychiatric disorders has been gaining attention. The relationship between dry eye symptoms and psychiatric symptoms has been reported in multiple retrospective studies. However, in previous studies there have been limitations to these observations, such as a lack of close examination of either DED or mood symptoms. Methods: In this study, we evaluated the psychological state and social functionality of DED patients by administering validated psychiatric tests as well as ophthalmologic examinations twice during the course of DED treatment. Forty subjects (61.3 ± 18.1-years old) received the primary psychiatric assessments and 26 received the secondary psychiatric assessments. Results: In a cross-sectional examination, we found patients with depressive and/or anxiety symptoms had higher Dry Eye Related Quality of Life Score (DEQ) scores, whereas the objective symptoms of DED did not differ between groups. We also found a positive relationship between depression/anxiety scores and DED subjective symptoms. On the other hand, in longitudinal examination, we found psychiatric symptoms had no impact on subjective and objective DED symptoms throughout the course of DED symptoms. Conclusions: We found depression and anxiety were related to the subjective symptoms of DED but not the objective symptoms. Translational Relevance: It is important to pay attention to psychiatric symptoms in patients with DED and an investigation into appropriate treatment strategies for patients with DED in combination with psychiatric symptoms is needed in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Article number35
JournalTranslational Vision Science and Technology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Nov


  • Antidepressant
  • Anxiety
  • Comorbidity
  • DEQ score
  • Depression

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Ophthalmology


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