The Site and Time of Expression of MIF in Frog Development

Toshihiko Fukuzawa, Hitoshi Okumoto, Midori Nishioka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


A ventrally localized melanization-inhibiting factor (MIF) has been suggested to play a role in the expression of dorsal-ventral pigment patterns in amphibia. Here we investigate the onset and localization of MIF appearance in frog development. The expression of MIF was analyzed in the wild-type and gray-eyed mutant (gig) of Rana japonica by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry using an anti-MIF neutralizing monoclonal antibody. Western blot analysis revealed that the anti-MIF antibody recognized∼51 kDa and ∼58 kDa bands. The 51 kDa band first appeared at the external gill stage, while 58 kDa band was additionally detected at the hindlimb bud stage. With the use of immunohistochemistry, it was found that the anti-MIF antibody stained the whole epidermis of the embryos at the external gill stage; however, the staining was stronger in lateral and ventral epidermis than in dorsal. Staining with the anti-MIF antibody was observed only in the outer epidermis of the ventral skin, but not in the dorsal skin during and after metamorphosis. The spatial expression of MIF in the wild-type was the same as that in the gray-eyed mutant. The same immunohistochemical result was obtained in the adults of R. nigromaculata. These results suggest that MIF is involved in the formation of the dorsal-ventral pigment pattern.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)401-409
Number of pages9
JournalPigment Cell Research
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1997 Dec


  • Melanization
  • Melanophore
  • Pigment cell
  • Pigment pattern

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Plant Science
  • Developmental Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology


Dive into the research topics of 'The Site and Time of Expression of MIF in Frog Development'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this