The VAGUS insight into psychosis scale - Self-report and clinician-rated versions

Philip Gerretsen, Gary Remington, Carol Borlido, Lena Quilty, Sabrina Hassan, Gina Polsinelli, Celine Teo, Wanna Mar, Regina Simon, Mahesh Menon, David D. Pothier, Shinichiro Nakajima, Fernando Caravaggio, David C. Mamo, Tarek K. Rajji, Benoit H. Mulsant, Vincenzo Deluca, Rohan Ganguli, Bruce G. Pollock, Ariel Graff-Guerrero

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of this study was to develop self-report and clinician-rated versions of an insight scale that would be easy to administer, sensitive to small changes, and inclusive of the core dimensions of clinical insight into psychosis. Ten-item self-report (VAGUS-SR) and five-item clinician-rated (VAGUS-CR) scales were designed to measure the dimensions of insight into psychosis and evaluated in 215 and 140 participants, respectively ( Tests of reliability and validity were performed. Both the VAGUS-SR and VAGUS-CR showed good internal consistency and reliability. They demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity. Both versions were strongly correlated with one another and with the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight and Birchwood Insight Scale. Exploratory factor analyses identified three possible latent components of insight. The VAGUS-CR and VAGUS-SR are valid, reliable and easy to administer. They are build on previous insight scales with separate clinician-rated and self-report versions. The VAGUS-SR exhibited a multidimensional factor structure. Using a 10-point Likert scale for each item, the VAGUS has the capacity to detect small, temporally sensitive changes in insight, which is essential for intervention studies with neurostimulation or rapidly acting medications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1084-1089
Number of pages6
JournalPsychiatry Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Dec 30
Externally publishedYes


  • Illness Awareness
  • Insight
  • Schizoaffective disorder
  • Schizophrenia
  • Symptom assessment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry


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