Thermodynamic Discussions for Continua Considering Microscopic Curvature of Temperature

Seiichi Kobayashi, Kazuyuki Shizawa, Kunihiro Takahashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this paper, the thermodynamic behavior of materials for nonequilibrium processes is discussed in continuum mechanics. The hypothesis of local equilibrium is assumed in a point of continua in conventional theory. In the previous paper, to avoid the above hypothesis, gradients of the thermodynamic quantities were introduced in the entropy inequality on the basis of the concept of thermopolar materials, to construct the basic theory. In the present paper, the average value and fluctuations of thermodynamic quantities are strictly defined. Therefore, Clausius-Duhem inequality and balance equations for fluctuations are newly derived considering the balance laws of microscopic energy moment for not only the 1st order, but also the 2nd order. Moreover, the arguments of response functions for internal forces and new dissipative fluxes are determined. As a result, it is suggested that the constitutive equations and heat conduction also depend on the microscopic curvature of the temperature for nonequilibrium processes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)232-239
Number of pages8
JournalTransactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers Series A
Issue number557
Publication statusPublished - 1993 Jan 1
Externally publishedYes


  • Constitutive Equation
  • Entropy
  • Material Design
  • Micropolar Materials
  • Nonequilibrium
  • Nonlocality
  • Thermal Stress
  • Thermodynamics
  • Thermopolar Materials

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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