## Abstract

In this paper, the thermodynamic behavior of materials for nonequilibrium processes is discussed in continuum mechanics. The hypothesis of local equilibrium is assumed in a point of continua in conventional theory. In the previous paper, to avoid the above hypothesis, gradients of the thermodynamic quantities were introduced in the entropy inequality on the basis of the concept of thermopolar materials, to construct the basic theory. In the present paper, the average value and fluctuations of thermodynamic quantities are strictly defined. Therefore, Clausius-Duhem inequality and balance equations for fluctuations are newly derived considering the balance laws of microscopic energy moment for not only the 1st order, but also the 2nd order. Moreover, the arguments of response functions for internal forces and new dissipative fluxes are determined. As a result, it is suggested that the constitutive equations and heat conduction also depend on the microscopic curvature of the temperature for nonequilibrium processes.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 232-239 |

Number of pages | 8 |

Journal | Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers Series A |

Volume | 59 |

Issue number | 557 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 1993 Jan 1 |

Externally published | Yes |

## Keywords

- Constitutive Equation
- Entropy
- Material Design
- Micropolar Materials
- Nonequilibrium
- Nonlocality
- Thermal Stress
- Thermodynamics
- Thermopolar Materials

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

- General Materials Science
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering