Three-dimensional human pattern visual evoked potentials. I. Normal subjects

Vernon L. Towle, John C. Witt, Takayuki Ohira, Richard Munson, Susan H. Nader, Jean Paul Spire

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Pattern visual evoked potentials (PVEPs) were obtained from 30 normal adultvolunteers, recording from both a conventional horizontal occipital array and three orthogonal bipolar antipodal channels approximating the three dimensions of space. Central and eccentric fixation of 60′ checks and central fixation of 30′ checks under binocular and monocular viewing conditions was employed. The three antipodal wave forms were displayed as a single 3-D Lissajous trajectory which contained four apices, corresponding to P40 (apex A), N70 (apex B), P100 (apex C) and N125 (apex D). The 3-D evoked potentials depicted the dynamic nature of the human PVEP in terms of changes in the 3-D voltage-voltage-voltage plots of the recordings. The orientation of the A-B, B-C and C-D curvilinear segments reflected the stimulating condition (central fixation vs. right vs. left hemi-field stimulation) for all subjects with more accuracy than did the wave forms from the conventional array. Spherical statistical methods are described for quantifying and evaluating 3-D evoked potential recordings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)329-338
Number of pages10
JournalElectroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology/ Evoked Potentials
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1991
Externally publishedYes


  • Pattern visual evoked potential (PVEP)
  • Three-channel Lissajous trajectory (3-CLT)
  • Three-dimensional evoked potential (3-D EP)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Neuroscience
  • Clinical Neurology


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