Three-dimensional human somatosensory evoked potentials

Vernon L. Towle, Richard Munson, Takayuki Ohira, Lou Ivanovic, John C. Witt, Jean Paul Spire

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


Median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded from 30 normal adults using conventional scalp derivations and an orthogonal bipolar surface electrode montage. This allowed the determination of the spatial orientation of the hypothetical centrally located equivalent dipole derived from the evoked response recorded in 3-dimensional voltage space. The 3-dimensional voltage trajectory describing changes in equivalent dipole orientation and magnitude revealed 4 major apices between 5 and 25 msec, 3 of which corresponded to the traditional P14, N20 and P25 peaks. A fourth apex at 17 msec was not as evident in the conventional recordings and signaled a transition from a vertical P14-N18 generator process to a horizontal N20 generator process. The normal within- and between-subject variability of trajectory apices, segments and planes are described, along with the theoretical and practical implications of this recording technique.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)336-347
Number of pages12
JournalElectroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology/ Evoked Potentials
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1988
Externally publishedYes


  • Somatosensory evoked potential
  • Three-channel Lissajous' trajectory
  • Three-dimensional evoked potential

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Clinical Neurology


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