We classify vortex-core structures according to the topology of the order parameter space. We develop a method to characterize how the order parameter changes inside the vortex core. We apply it to spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates and show that the vortex-core structures are classified by winding numbers that are locally defined in the core region. We also show that a vortex-core structure with a nontrivial winding number can be stabilized under a negative quadratic Zeeman effect.
|Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics
|Published - 2012 Aug 13
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics