Transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes among Japanese immigrants and natives in Bolivia

Anis Khan, Yasuhito Tanaka, Hidetsugu Saito, Hirotoshi Ebinuma, Hitoshi Sekiguchi, Hideaki Iwama, Go Wakabayashi, Toshio Kamiya, Fuat Kurbanov, Abeer Elkady, Masashi Mizokami

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24 Citations (Scopus)


Hepatitis B virus genotypes are associated with transmission pattern, virological and clinical features and outcome of the chronic infection course. HBV genotypes other than Genotype F (HBV/F) are considered a reflection of human migration into South America. A total of 487 individuals in Bolivia, including Japanese immigrants (n = 287) and natives (n = 200), were screened for HBV serological markers. Overall 22/487 (4.5%) of the subjects were positive for HBsAg, 217/487 (44.5%) for anti-HBc and 162/487 (33.3%) for anti-HBs. Genotypes were determinable in 22 cases by EIA, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis in 17 cases. HBV genotype distribution in Japanese and Bolivians was HBV/F (4 and 8); HBV/C (5 and 3); and HBV/B (1 and 1), respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of nine complete and eight partial (HBsAg/pre-core/core region) genomes, revealed that HBV/F strains cluster with previously reported regional strains, whereas HBV/B and HBV/C strains belonged to Asian subgenotype B2 (Ba) and C2 (Ce), respectively. Japanese immigrants might have introduced HBV/B and HBV/C to natives in Bolivia, conversely, exposed to the indigenous HBV/F. This report provides evidence of an inter-communities transmission of HBV revealed by its genotypes. Further study is required to investigate peculiarities of the genotypes in different ethnic groups in Bolivia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)174-180
Number of pages7
JournalVirus Research
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - 2008 Mar
Externally publishedYes


  • Bolivians
  • Genotypes
  • HBV
  • Japanese immigrants
  • Transmission

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases


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