Transmural pressure induces IL-6 secretion by intestinal epithelial cells

H. Kishikawa, S. Miura, H. Yoshida, M. Hirokawa, H. Nakamizo, H. Higuchi, M. Adachi, R. C. Nakatsumi, H. Suzuki, H. Saito, H. Ishii

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Although intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) are known as an important source for IL-6, it is not known whether mechanical forces affect IL-6 production. We investigated how transmural pressure modulates IL-6 synthesis and activation of transcription factors in IECs. Pressure was loaded onto IEC-18 cells by introducing compressed helium gas into the cell culture flask for 1-48 h. IL-6 release into the culture media was determined by cell proliferation bioassay using an IL-6-dependent mouse hybridoma cell line (7TD1). Exposure to pressure (80mmHg) significantly enhanced IL-6 release into the culture media from IEC-18 cells at 12 h. Under control conditions, IL-6 secretion was directed to the basolateral side, but after exposure to pressure IL-6 secretion was increased in both the apical and basolateral sides. A nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) decoy reversed completely the pressure-induced increase of IL-6 secretion by IEC-18 cells. Pressure treatment enhanced IL-6 mRNA expression in IECs within 6 h. Pressure loading significantly enhanced the activation of both NF-κB and NF-IL-6 from 1 h in the nuclear protein of IEC-18 cells as assessed by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay using FITC-conjugated specific primers. Increased phosphorylation of I-kappa B was also demonstrated in the cytosol of IEC cells within 1 h by Western blot analysis. These results suggest a possible role for pressure loading in immune modulation of the intestinal mucosa by the stimulation of IL-6 release from intestinal epithelial cells.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)86-91
Number of pages6
JournalClinical and Experimental Immunology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2002
Externally publishedYes


  • IL-6
  • Intestinal epithelial cells
  • NF-IL-6
  • NF-κB
  • Transmural pressure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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