We investigate the tunneling properties of collective excitations in the ferromagnetic phase of a spin-1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). In addition to the Bogoliubov mode, this superfluid phase has two spin excitations, namely, the gapless transverse spin wave and the quadrupolar mode with a finite excitation gap. In the mean-field theory at T=0, we examine how these collective modes tunnel through a barrier potential that couples to the local density of particles. In the presence of supercurrent with a finite momentum q, while the Bogoliubov mode shows the so-called anomalous tunneling behavior (which is characterized by perfect transmission) in the low-energy limit, the transverse spin wave transmits perfectly only when the momentum k of this mode coincides with ±q. At k=±q, the wave function of this spin wave has the same form as the condensate wave function in the current-carrying state, so that the mechanism of this perfect transmission is found to be the same as tunneling of the supercurrent. Using this fact, the perfect transmission of the spin wave is proved for a generic barrier potential. We show that such perfect transmission does not occur in the quadrupolar mode. Further, we consider the effects of potentials breaking U(1) and spin-rotation symmetries on the transmission properties of excitations. Our results would be useful for understanding excitation properties of spinor BEC's, as well as the anomalous tunneling phenomenon in Bose superfluids.
|Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics
|Published - 2011 Mar 29
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics