Two-dimensional MEMS scanner for dual-axes confocal microscopy

Hyejun Ra, Wibool Piyawattanametha, Yoshihiro Taguchi, Daesung Lee, Michael J. Mandella, Olav Solgaard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

119 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, we present a novel 2-D microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanner that enables dual-axes confocal microscopy. Dual-axes confocal microscopy provides high resolution and long working distance, while also being well suited for miniaturization and integration into endoscopes for in vivo imaging. The gimbaled MEMS scanner is fabricated on a double silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer (a silicon wafer bonded on a SOI wafer) and is actuated by self-aligned vertical electrostatic combdrives. Maximum optical deflections of ±4.8 ° and ±5.5 ° are achieved in static mode for the outer and inner axes, respectively. Torsional resonant frequencies are at 500 Hz and 2.9 kHz for the outer and inner axes, respectively. The imaging capability of the MEMS scanner is successfully demonstrated in a breadboard setup. Reflectance images with a field of view of 344 μm × 417 μm are achieved at 8 frames/s. The transverse resolutions are 3.94 and 6.68 μm for the horizontal and vertical dimensions, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)969-976
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2007 Aug


  • 2-D microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanner
  • Dual-axes confocal microscopy
  • Electrostatic actuation
  • Micromirror
  • Self-alignment
  • Vertical comb actuators

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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