The underlying mechanism in the implementation of unitary operation on a system with an external apparatus is studied. We implement the unitary time evolution in the system as a physical phenomenon that results from the interaction between the system and the apparatus. We investigate the fundamental limitation of an accurate implementation for the desired unitary time evolution. This limitation is manifested in the form of trade-off relations between the accuracy of the implementation and quantum fluctuation of energy in the external apparatus. Our relations clearly show that an accurate unitary operation requires a large energy fluctuation inside the apparatus originated from the quantum fluctuation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- General Physics and Astronomy