Arid ecosystem covers one third of the Earth's surface and is the home town of majority of the population of the world. This ecosystem is also important because it has significant roles in land and water resources management. However, due to anthropogenic land use activities or shifting climate conditions, the features of the ecosystem change and cause diminished vegetative cover, reduced productivity, increased soil erosion, invasion of exotics, and loss of native species. Moreover, in the recent years, earth's vegetative cover may exceed the ecosystem's capacity to adapt, which happens through the consequence of rapid land degradation along with desertification. Therefore, this chapter provides how different regions endeavor with this arid ecosystem by performing various adaptation practices.