Understanding challenges faced by VFR hosts: A study of Japanese migrant hosts in Australia

Sho Kashiwagi, Hayato Nagai, Tomoyuki Furutani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Hosting behaviours and experiences have gradually been acknowledged as influential factors in visiting friends and relatives (VFR) travel. However, the challenges facing VFR hosts while hosting VFR travellers have not been well researched, especially for VFR hosts who are migrants from different cultural and language backgrounds. This study aims to explore the challenges of hosting friends and relatives who have different cultural and language backgrounds to the destination country using the case of Japanese migrant VFR hosts in Australia. Qualitative analysis revealed 12 challenges, which were grouped into three areas, leading to some hosts being reluctant and inactive in receiving VFR travellers. These challenges were rooted in communication difficulties, including the language barriers of their VFR travellers and the social obligations of VFR hosts. This study also suggests socio-cultural differences and living environments between VFR hosts living in the migration destination and VFR travellers living in the home country, making these challenges even greater despite sharing cultural backgrounds. Further research is required to uncover the patterns and impacts of each challenge based on the host and traveller types and to support the design of measures to develop the VFR market.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)306-315
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Hospitality and Tourism Management
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Mar


  • Australia
  • Japanese migrants
  • Language barriers
  • Socio-cultural differences
  • VFR host Challenges
  • VFR travel

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


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