In classical viscous fluids, turbulent eddies are known to be responsible for the rapid spreading of embedded particles. However, in inviscid quantum fluids where the turbulence is induced by a chaotic tangle of quantized vortices, dispersion of the particles can be achieved via a nonclassical mechanism, i.e., their binding to the evolving vortices. However, knowledge on how the vortices diffuse and spread in quantum-fluid turbulence is very limited, especially for the so-called ultraquantum turbulence (UQT) generated by a random tangle of vortices. Here we report a systematic numerical study of the apparent diffusion of vortices in UQT in superfluid helium-4 using the full Biot-Savart simulation. We reveal that the vortices in the superfluid exhibit a universal anomalous diffusion (superdiffusion) at small times, which transits to normal diffusion at large times. This behavior is found to be the result of a generic scaling property of the vortex velocity. Our simulation at finite temperatures also nicely reproduces recent experimental observations. The knowledge obtained from this study may form the base for understanding turbulent transport and universal vortex dynamics in various quantum fluids.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)