Validating a test of L2 routine formulae to detect pragmatics learning in stay abroad

Carsten Roever, Yuki Higuchi, Miyuki Sasaki, Tomoko Yashima, Makiko Nakamuro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


There has long been interest in the effect of stay abroad on pragmatic development in second language (L2) pragmatics research. However, few testing instruments exist to assess pragmatics learning in stay abroad and provide information about learners' development to help institutions evaluate the success of stay abroad programs. In this study, we describe the adaptation and validation of Roever's (2005) test of second language routine formulae to be used large-scale with Japanese stay-abroad learners. We follow Kane's (2006) argument-based approach to validation, evaluating the first four inferences: Domain description, Evaluation, Generalization, and Explanation. We also investigate the test's practicality within the institutional setting of intended use. We find evidence supporting the use of the test for providing information on pragmatics learning during stay abroad. The test can differentiate between low- and high-ability learners, shows adequate reliability, and reflects the roles of proficiency and exposure in pragmatics learning in stay abroad contexts. The test is also practical and requires few resources. Further steps, such as the investigation of the Extrapolation and Decision inference, are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)41-63
Number of pages23
JournalApplied Pragmatics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Feb 16


  • L2 pragmatics
  • argument-based validation
  • conventional expressions
  • routine formulae
  • stay abroad
  • study abroad

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Linguistics and Language


Dive into the research topics of 'Validating a test of L2 routine formulae to detect pragmatics learning in stay abroad'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this