Acute ischemia produces dynamic changes in labile metabolites. To capture snapshots of such acute metabolic changes, we utilized focused microwave treatment to fix metabolic flow in vivo in hearts of mice 10 min after ligation of the left anterior descending artery. The left ventricle was subdivided into short-Axis serial slices and the metabolites were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry and matrix-Assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry. These techniques allowed us to determine the fate of exogenously administered 13 C 6-glucose and 13 C 3-lactate. The penumbra regions, which are adjacent to the ischemic core, exhibited the greatest adenine nucleotide energy charge and an adenosine overflow extending from the ischemic core, which can cause ischemic hyperemia. Imaging analysis of metabolic pathway flows revealed that the penumbra executes accelerated glucose oxidation, with remaining lactate utilization for tricarboxylic acid cycle for energy compensation, suggesting unexpected metabolic interplays of the penumbra with the ischemic core and normoxic regions.
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