Wafer bonding techniques for MEMS

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


Wafer bonding is an emerging and promising technology for the manufacture of complex three-dimensional structures as well as achieving vacuum sealing. Photolithography, which enables the mass production and batch fabrication of MEMS devices, is subject to the limited manufacturability of three-dimensional structures, resulting in a narrow design space and deterioration in the device performance. In wafer bonding, device wafers are patterned individually to create semi-three-dimensional structures by microfabrication and, subsequently, bonded together to form complex three-dimensional structures at the wafer level. In addition, wafer bonding can be conducted in a vacuum ambient and achieve vacuum sealing, which is crucial in many MEMS sensors and actuators since damping by air predominates at the microscale. Wafer bonding techniques utilized in the MEMS field are categorized into four types, namely: direct bonding, anodic bonding, intermediate-layer bonding, and surface activated bonding. This paper gives a brief review of recent work relevant to these bonding techniques and their applications with the emphasis on silicon direct bonding.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)263-273
Number of pages11
JournalSensor Letters
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2005 Dec


  • Anodic bonding
  • Direct bonding
  • Intermediate-layer bonding
  • MEMS
  • Microfabrication
  • Packaging
  • Surface activated bonding
  • Surface roughness
  • Three-dimensional microstructures
  • Vacuum seal
  • Wafer bonding

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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