Weight loss during neoadjuvant therapy and short-term outcomes after esophagectomy: a retrospective cohort study

Yuki Hirano, Takaaki Konishi, Hidehiro Kaneko, Hidetaka Itoh, Satoru Matsuda, Hirofumi Kawakubo, Kazuaki Uda, Hiroki Matsui, Kiyohide Fushimi, Hiroyuki Daiko, Osamu Itano, Hideo Yasunaga, Yuko Kitagawa

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1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) has become common worldwide for resectable advanced esophageal cancer and frequently involves weight loss. Although failure to rescue (death after major complications) is known as an emerging surgical quality measure, little is known about the impact of weight loss during NAT on failure to rescue. This retrospective study aimed to investigate the association of weight loss during NAT and short-term outcomes, including failure to rescue after esophagectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent esophagectomy after NAT between July 2010 and March 2019 were identified from a Japanese nationwide inpatient database. Based on quartiles of percent weight change during NAT, patients were grouped into four categories of gain, stable, small loss, and loss (>4.5%). The primary outcomes were failure to rescue and in-hospital mortality. The secondary outcomes were major complications, respiratory complications, anastomotic leakage, and total hospitalization costs. Multivariable regression analyses were used to compare outcomes between the groups, adjusting for potential confounders, including baseline BMI. RESULTS: Among 15 159 eligible patients, in-hospital mortality and failure to rescue occurred in 302 (2.0%) and 302/5698 (5.3%) patients, respectively. Weight loss (>4.5%) compared to gain was associated with increased failure to rescue and in-hospital mortality [odds ratios 1.55 (95% CI: 1.10-2.20) and 1.53 (1.10-2.12), respectively]. Weight loss was also associated with increased total hospitalizations costs, but not with major complications, respiratory complications, and anastomotic leakage. In subgroup analyses, regardless of baseline BMI, weight loss (>4.8% in nonunderweight or >3.1% in underweight) was a risk factor for failure to rescue and in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: Weight loss during NAT was associated with failure to rescue and in-hospital mortality after esophagectomy, independent of baseline BMI. This emphasizes the importance of weight loss measurement during NAT to assess the risk for a subsequent esophagectomy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)805-812
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Surgery
Volume109
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Apr 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine

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