Whole-cell simulation: A grand challenge of the 21st century

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

244 Citations (Scopus)


Study of the cell will never be complete unless its dynamic behavior is understood. The complex behavior of the cell cannot be determined or predicted unless a computer model of the cell is constructed and computer simulation is undertaken. Rapid accumulation of biological data from genome, proteome, transcriptome and metabolome projects can bring us to the point where it is no longer purely speculative to discuss how to construct virtual cells in silico. This article describes attempts to construct whole cell models. The E-CELL project has completed a couple of virtual cell models, and computer simulations have revealed some biological surprises.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)205-210
Number of pages6
JournalTrends in Biotechnology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2001 Jun 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering


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