Background: Thromboendarterectomy (TEA) is the gold-standard treatment for common femoral artery (CFA). However, because of its low invasiveness and short hospitalization duration, CFA endovascular therapy (EVT) is performed in real-world practice. However, the clinical benefits and appropriate target population for CFA EVT remain unclear. Objectives: The aims of this study were to compare the clinical outcomes of TEA with those of EVT in patients with symptomatic CFA diseases and to identify the adequate target population for CFA EVT. Methods: A total of 1,193 consecutive patients who underwent EVT (n = 761) or TEA (n = 432) for CFA were identified and retrospectively reviewed from a registry of 66 institutions. The primary outcome was 1-year primary patency compared between EVT and TEA using propensity score matching. An interaction analysis was performed to explore the appropriate target population for CFA EVT. Results: After propensity score matching, the 1-year primary patency rate was significantly higher in the TEA group (82.3% vs 96.6%; P < 0.001), whereas perioperative complications were more frequently observed in the TEA group (P = 0.047). Nonambulatory status attenuated the HR of EVT vs TEA for restenosis risk (P = 0.021), whereas the presence of nodular calcification significantly increased the HR (P = 0.040). In the EVT subgroup analysis for restenosis risk, stent use showed the lowest HR compared with plain balloon angioplasty and drug-coated balloon angioplasty (P < 0.001). Conclusions: TEA showed superior 1-year patency compared with EVT in a nationwide multicenter study. Nonambulatory status attenuated the superiority, whereas the presence of nodular calcification enhanced it.
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