A 75-year-old woman had a 5 mm slightly elevated yellowish lesion in her thoracic esophagus. Narrow-band imaging magnifying endoscopy (NBI-ME) revealed aggregations of a tiny white substance beneath each intrapapillary capillary loop with weaving, dilatation, and a different shape. In this case, an irregular caliber was absent. The biopsy specimen taken from the lesion showed cells with large nuclei and increased chromatin clumping in the basal layer. These cells were positive for p53. Endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed for the purpose of excisional biopsy. Finally, it was diagnosed as an esophageal xanthoma with a benign epithelial reactive inflammation. This is the first report of esophageal xanthoma showing the characteristic NBI-ME finding of esophageal xanthoma. Further studies are required to determine whether the characteristic finding of NBI-ME is generally found in esophageal xanthomas.
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