We report a case of a 13-year-old female with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and primary hypothyroidism followed by type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM), both of which are rare complications. In LCH diagnosis, imaging studies showed an enlargement of the thyroid gland, suggesting the involvement of LCH cells. While the pancreas appeared normal, insulin secretion markedly deteriorated 11 months after cessation of chemotherapy. Even without direct pancreatic involvement, there is a possibility that LCH could induce DM as a part of its long-term complications. In particular, thyroid involvement may be related to the onset of DM.
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