We surveyed natural population of the Drosophila ananassae species complex on Penang Island, Malaysia. Analyses of phenotypic traits, chromosome arrangements, molecular markers, and reproductive isolation suggest the existence of two species: D. ananassae and D. cf. parapallidosa. Molecular marker analysis indicates that D. cf. parapallidosa carries chromosome Y and 4 introgressions from D. ananassae. Thus, D. cf. parapallidosa seems to be a hybrid descendant that recently originated from a natural D. parapallidosa♀× D. ananassae♂ cross. Furthermore, D. cf. parapallidosa behaves differently from authentic D. parapallidosa with respect to its reproductive isolation from D. ananassae. Premating isolation is usually seen in only the D. ananassae♀× D. parapallidosa♂ cross, but we observed it in crosses of both directions between D. ananassae and D. cf. parapallidosa. In addition, hybrid males from the D. ananassae♀× D. parapallidosa♂ cross are usually sterile, but they were fertile when D. ananassae♀ were mated with D. cf. parapallidosa ♂. We attempted an artificial reconstruction of the hybrid species to simulate the evolutionary process(es) that produced D. cf. parapallidosa. This is a rare case of natural hybrid population in Drosophila and may be a useful system for elucidating speciation with gene flow.
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