Recent success in derivation of functional gametes (oocytes and spermatozoa) from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) of rodents has made it feasible for future application to large animals including endangered species and to ultimately humans. Here, we summarize backgrounds and recent studies on in vitro gametogenesis from rodent PSCs, and similar approaches using PSCs from large animals, including livestock, nonhuman primates (NHPs), and humans. We also describe additional developing approaches for in vitro reconstitution of reproductive organs, such as the ovary (ovarioid), testis (testisoid), and future challenges in the uterus (uteroid) and oviduct (oviductoid), all of which may be derived from PSCs. Once established, these in vitro systems may serve as a robust platform for elucidating the pathology of infertility-related disorders and ectopic pregnancy, principle of reproduction, and artificial biogenesis. Therefore, these possibilities, especially when using human cells, require consideration of ethical issues, and international agreements and guidelines need to be raised before opening “Pandora’s Box”.
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