Hypertension frequently requires combination therapy to attain efficient control to prevent cardiovascular diseases effectively. This study was conducted to determine which add-on treatment is better, namely calcium channel blockers or diuretics, in improving vascular damage. In 70 nondiabetic chronic kidney disease stage 1/2 patients who had been already treated with angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker valsartan for at least 12 months, amlodipine or hydrochlorothiazide was added to their existing medication. Pulse wave velocity (PWV), intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid arteries, urinary albumin excretion (UAE), and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) were determined before and 12 months after the start of add-on treatments. Add-on amlodipine and add-on hydrochlorothiazide significantly and similarly decreased 24-hour ambulatory BP by 18 and 19 mm Hg, respectively, PWV by 206 and 184 cm/s, respectively, and UAE, but did not change the IMT. The decreases in BP significantly contributed to the decreases in PWV and UAE and suggested that the decrease in serum cholesterol level brought about by add-on amlodipine also contributed to the decrease in UAE. These results suggest that 12 months of add-on treatment with either amlodipine or hydrochlorothiazide could have beneficial effects in nondiabetic chronic kidney disease stage 1/2 patients already being treated with valsartan.
ASJC Scopus subject areas