Recent studies have revealed the impact of antibiotic-induced microbiome depletion (AIMD) on host glucose homeostasis. The kidney has a critical role in systemic glucose homeostasis; however, information regarding the association between AIMD and renal glucose metabolism remains limited. Hence, we aimed to determine the effects of AIMD on renal glucose metabolism by inducing gut microbiome depletion using an antibiotic cocktail (ABX) composed of ampicillin, vancomycin, and levofloxacin in mice. The results showed that bacterial 16s rRNA expression, luminal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids and bile acids, and plasma glucose levels were significantly lower in ABX-treated mice than in vehicle-treated mice. In addition, ABX treatment significantly reduced renal glucose and pyruvate levels. mRNA expression levels of glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in the renal cortex were significantly higher in ABX-treated mice than in vehicle-treated mice. We further examined the impact of AIMD on the altered metabolic status in mice after ischemia-induced kidney injury. After exposure to ischemia for 60min, renal pyruvate concentrations were significantly lower in ABX-treated mice than in vehicle-treated mice. ABX treatment caused a more severe tubular injury after ischemia-reperfusion. Our findings confirm that AIMD is associated with decreased pyruvate levels in the kidney, which may have been caused by the activation of renal gluconeogenesis. Thus, we hypothesized that AIMD would increase the vulnerability of the kidney to ischemia-reperfusion injury.
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