Preoperative imaging differentiation between ChRCC and RO is difficult with conventional subjective evaluation, and the development of quantitative analysis is a clinical challenge. Forty-nine patients underwent partial or radical nephrectomy preceded by MRI and followed by pathological diagnosis with ChRCC or RO (ChRCC: n = 41, RO: n = 8). The whole-lesion volume of interest was set on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps of 1.5T-MRI. The importance of selected texture features (TFs) was evaluated, and diagnostic models were created using random forest (RF) analysis. The Mean Decrease Gini as calculated through RF analysis was the highest for mean_ADC_value. ChRCC had a significantly lower mean_ADC_value than RO (1.26 vs. 1.79 × 10−3 mm2/s, p < 0.0001). Feature selection by the Boruta method identified the first-quartile ADC value and GLZLM_HGZE as important features. ROC curve analysis showed that there was no significant difference in the classification performances between the mean_ADC_value-only model and the Boruta model (AUC: 0.954 vs. 0.969, p = 0.236). The mean ADC value had good predictive ability for the distinction between ChRCC and RO, comparable to that of the combination of TFs optimized for the evaluated cohort. The mean ADC value may be useful in distinguishing between ChRCC and RO.
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