Consumer behavior differs among individuals; one such common individual difference is financial extravagance. Recent research suggests that the activation of the caudate nucleus plays an important role in consumer behavior. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study has investigated the specific relationship between the caudate nucleus and consumer financial extravagance. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the association between individual differences in financial extravagance and regional gray matter volume in the caudate nucleus by using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We recruited 776 healthy, right-handed individuals (432 men and 344 women; mean age. = 20.7. ±. 1.8) and used voxel-based morphometry and a financial extravagance questionnaire to determine the association between financial extravagance and gray matter structure in the caudate nucleus. Our measure of financial extravagance was based on the novelty seeking subscales of the Japanese version of the Temperament and Character Inventory. A multiple regression analysis including financial extravagance, age, sex, Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrix score, total intracranial volume, and novelty seeking subscales was conducted to examine what variables were related to regional gray matter volume in the region of interest within the caudate nucleus. A significant positive correlation was found between the obtained financial extravagance score and regional gray matter volume in the caudate nucleus. We found that structural variations in the caudate nucleus contributed to individual differences in financial extravagance. This finding may provide a new neuroscientific approach to understanding individual characteristics of consumers.
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