Aim of this study was to examine the association between the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and dysglycemia in Japanese individuals with and without type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We enrolled 115 individuals diagnosed with OSA with an apnea hypopnea-index (AHI) ≥ 20 in whom continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy was introduced (N = 115, 44 with T2DM, age 62 ± 11 years, BMI 27.0 ± 4.4 kg/m2 and AHI median 36.1; interquartile range 27.2–48.1). During admission, the severity of OSA was evaluated by polysomnography, and its association with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level was examined. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was also conducted during the admission in 94 individuals. Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), non-rapid eye movement (REM) AHI, minimum peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2) and percentage of sleep time (%TST) with SpO2 < 90% were significantly associated with HbA1c level in total and non-diabetic individuals (all p < 0.05) but not in those with T2DM, the majority of whom were treated with anti-diabetic medications. The associations of the non-REM AHI and %TST with SpO2 < 90% with HbA1c level remained significant after adjustment for age, sex and BMI in non-diabetic and T2DM subjects treated with dietary therapy only. Mean glucose level, but not SD or coefficient of variation of glucose, assessed by CGM was significantly associated with AHI and non-REM AHI in non-diabetic subjects after adjustment for age, sex and BMI. In conclusion, the severity of OSA was associated with increased HbA1c level independently of BMI in Japanese individuals, especially in those without diabetes.
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