Objective: This study was performed to investigate the association of hypertension subtypes with glucose metabolism among the Japanese general population. Methods: The study involved 646 residents (mean age: 62.4 years) without treatment for hypertension or a history of diabetes from Ohasama, a rural Japanese community, who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Hypertension subtypes [normotension, isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH), and systolic and diastolic hypertension (SDH)] were defined on the basis of home and office SBP and DBP (HBP and OBP, respectively). The estimated means of blood glucose related indices among the groups were compared by analysis of covariance adjusted for possible confounding factors. Results: Blood glucose related indices were not different among the morning HBP-defined hypertension subtypes. Participants with evening HBP-defined ISH had a significantly higher estimated mean BG at 120 min, higher homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and lower Matsuda – DeFronzo index than participants with NT (all P < 0.021). Participants with OBP-defined SDH had a significantly higher estimated mean fasting blood glucose; blood glucose at 30, 60 and 120 min; and HOMA-IR and a lower Matsuda – DeFronzo index than participants with NT (all P < 0.0025). Conclusion: The blood glucose related indices were different among hypertension subtypes. Participants with evening HBP-defined ISH and OBP-defined SDH had higher blood glucose levels and insulin resistance than participants with correspondingly defined normotension, while those with morning HBP did not. These findings suggest the importance of measuring evening HBP and office blood pressure for early detection of coexisting hypertension and diabetes.
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