Uterus transplantation (UTx) is now a potential option for women with uterine factor infertility to have a child. However, UTx is still in an experimental stage and basic animal studies including in nonhuman primates are needed for accumulation of data that will provide important information for establishment of UTx in humans. Herein, we summarized our experiences using cynomolgus macaques, with the goal of promoting further development of UTx studies in nonhuman primates. Our basic studies using cynomolgus macaques were summarized, including the results of other teams in nonhuman primates. Our team in Japan launched UTx research in 2009 using cynomolgus macaques and has accumulated a large archive of results in the UTx research field, including examination of uterine blood flow, surgical procedures of autologous and allogeneic UTx, organ perfusion methods in deceased donor models, immunological response and rejection and ischemia/reperfusion injury. We achieved the first delivery after autologous UTx in primates and the first periodic recovery of menstruation after allogeneic UTx in nonhuman primate models. Results from animal studies, including those in nonhuman primates, provide the basis for clinical application of UTx. Therefore, our accumulated data since 2009 and our basic experience in cynomolgus macaque are meaningful for future UTx trials in Japan. In addition, more validation in nonhuman primate models is needed for resolution of medical issues and further development of UTx in humans, despite clinical application of UTx in several countries.
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