The number of cases of endometrial cancer has shown a tendency to increase in recent years. Endometrial cancer originates from the endometrium and is classified, based on the development mechanism, into types 1 and 2, which are responsive and non-responsive to estrogen, respectively, and have significantly different gene expression profiles. Studies of genes with abnormal expression in endometrial cancer have identified multiple oncogenes, tumor suppressors, mismatch repair genes, apoptosis-associated genes, levels of hormone receptors and DNA ploidy and aneuploidy as biomarkers of endometrial cancer. The use of these molecules and genes may facilitate accurate diagnosis and prognostic prediction and contribute to individualized treatment. Trials of drugs which target these biomarkers and searches for new biomarkers using cDNA microarrays and RT-qPCR are ongoing and it is likely that these findings can be translated to clinical use.
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