Background: The importance of examining the status of gastric inflammation has been acknowledged; the new classification by the updated Sydney system (USS) allows us to evaluate the quantitative status of gastric inflammation. However, this system is based on the histological classification derived from biopsy specimens. Therefore, more convenient, objective and practical biomarkers are recommended. Aim: We undertook a systematic review to find out potential biomarkers by summarizing the relationship between biomarkers and grades of inflammation. Methods: By a primary search via Medline up to December 2004, we extracted a total of 6,526 papers that described biomarkers for human gastric inflammation. All papers were screened by title and abstract. The authors then retrieved 435 citations for complete review; ultimately 231 were appropriate for inclusion criteria. These papers were subclassified into several categories and summarized by each author. Resuits: In addition to standard markers such as pepsinogens, we confirmed the close relationship between the levels of several biomarkers including gastrin, interleukin-8, HLA class II molecules, reactive oxygen species, and the histological grades. Conclusions: This review provides valuable information describing the clinical implication of these biomarkers for evaluating the static conditions or dynamic alterations of human gastric inflammation.
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