We report a patient with logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (lv-PPA) who was diagnosed as having non-Alzheimer's disease (AD) tauopathy after multiple biophysical/biological examinations, including amyloid and 18F-florzolotau tau positron emission tomography (PET), had been performed. A woman in her late 60s who had previously been diagnosed as having AD was referred to us for a further, detailed examination. She had been unaware of any symptoms at the time of AD diagnosis, but she subsequently became gradually aware of a speech impairment. She talked nearly completely and fluently, although she occasionally exhibited word-finding difficulty and made phonological errors during naming, word fluency testing, and sentence repetition; these findings met the criteria for the diagnosis of lv-PPA, which is known to be observed more commonly in AD than in other proteinopathies. Magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission computed tomography, and plasma phosphorylated tau and plasma neurofilament light chain measurements showed an AD-like pattern. However, both 11C-Pittsburgh compound-B and 18F-florbetaben amyloid PET showed negative results, whereas 18F-florzolotau tau PET yielded positive results, with radio signals predominantly in the left superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, and frontal operculum. Whole-genome sequencing revealed no known dominantly inherited mutations in AD or frontotemporal lobar degeneration genes, including the genes encoding amyloid precursor protein, microtubule-associated protein tau, presenilin 1 and 2. To the best of our knowledge, this patient was a rare case of lv-PPA who was diagnosed as having non-AD tauopathy based on the results of multiple examinations, including whole-genome sequencing, plasma measurement, and amyloid and 18F-florzolotau tau PET. This case underscores the clinicopathologically heterogeneous nature of this syndrome.
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