Regenerative medicine offers the potential for replacement or repair of different types of cells within damaged tissues or the tissues themselves, typically through cell therapy or tissue engineering. Stem cells are critical to these approaches; indeed, the involvement of bone marrow in the differentiation of stem cells to nonhematopoietic cells is well demonstrated. Further, the contribution of bone marrow-derived stem cells in promoting neoangiogenesis has been demonstrated not only in animal models, but also in human clinical trials with an excellent safety profile. Recent evidence indicates that the endometrium is a tissue with the potential for regeneration through such approaches. The presence of donor cells in the endometrium of women receiving bone marrow transplantation suggests a hematopoietic source with the ability to renew this tissue. Here we describe the role of cell therapy with bone marrow-derived stem cells in treating endometrial dysfunction in Asherman syndrome and/or endometrial atrophy in human and murine models. Additionally, the emerging field of tissue engineering has recently been applied in the reproductive tissues-beyond the endometrium-with elegant studies involving humans and animal models.
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