Background: pancreatic cancer (PCa) and biliary tract cancer (BTC) are cancers with a poor prognosis and few effective treatments. One of the reasons for this is late detection. Many researchers are tackling to develop non-invasive biomarkers for cancer, but few are specific for PCa or BTC. In addition, genetic abnormalities occur in cancer tissues, which ultimately affect the expression of various molecules. Therefore, it is important to identify molecules that are altered in PCa and BTC. For this systematic review, a systematic review of Medline and Embase to select biomarker studies of PCa and BTC patients was conducted. Results: after reviewing 72 studies, 79 biomarker candidates were identified, including 22 nucleic acids, 43 proteins, and 14 immune cell types. Of the 72 studies, 61 examined PCa, and 11 examined BTC. Conclusion: PCa and BTC are characterized by nucleic acid, protein, and immune cell profiles that are markedly different from those of healthy subjects. These altered molecules and cell subsets may serve as cancer-specific biomarkers, particularly in blood. Further studies are needed to better understand the diagnosis and prognosis of PCa and BTC.
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