Purpose: The postoperative mortality rate of distal pancreatectomy is lower than that of pancreaticoduodenectomy, although persistent complications may occur after distal pancreatectomy. Fluid collection (FC) is frequently observed after distal pancreatectomy; however, FC may occasionally progress to postoperative intra-abdominal abscess (PIAA), which requires conservative or progressive interventional treatment. This study aimed to compare the status between patients with or without PIAA, identify predictive factors for PIAA and clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula, and investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with PIAA with interventional drainage. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed data of patients who underwent distal pancreatectomy between January 2012 and December 2019 at two high-volume centers, where hepatobiliary-pancreatic surgeries were performed by expert specialist surgeons. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the predictive factors for PIAA. Results: Overall, 242 patients were analyzed, among whom 49 (20.2%) had PIAA. The median postoperative period of PIAA formation was 9 (range: 3–49) days. Among the 49 patients with PIAA, 25 (51.0%) underwent percutaneous ultrasound, computed tomography, or endoscopic ultrasound-guided interventions for PIAA. In the univariate analysis, preoperative indices representing abdominal fat mass (i.e., body mass index, subcutaneous fat area, and visceral fat area) were identified as predictive factors for PIAA; in the multivariate analysis, C-reactive protein (CRP) level (continuous variable) on postoperative day (POD) 3 (odds ratio: 1.189, 95.0% confidence interval: 1.111 − 1.274; P < 0.001) was the only independent and significant predictive factor for PIAA. Conclusions: CRP level on POD 3 was an independent and significant predictive factor for PIAA after distal pancreatectomy.
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