Drug-coated balloon (DCB) technology was developed to deliver the antiproliferative drugs to the vessel wall without leaving any permanent prosthesis or durable polymers. The absence of foreign material can reduce the risk of very late stent failure, improve the ability to perform bypass-graft surgery, and reduce the need for long-term dual antiplatelet therapy, potentially reducing associated bleeding complications. The DCB technology, like the bioresorbable scaffolds, is expected to be a therapeutic approach that facilitates the “leave nothing behind” strategy. Although newer generation drug-eluting stents are the most common therapeutic strategy in modern percutaneous coronary interventions, the use of DCB is steadily increasing in Japan. Currently, the DCB is only indicated for treatment of in-stent restenosis or small vessel lesions (< 3.0 mm), but potential expansion for larger vessels (≥ 3.0 mm) may hasten its use in a wider range of lesions or patients with obstructive coronary artery disease. The task force of the Japanese Association of Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics (CVIT) was convened to describe the expert consensus on DCBs. This document aims to summarize its concept, current clinical evidence, possible indications, technical considerations, and future perspectives.
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