The number of patients with multiple primary lung cancers (MPLC) is rising. We studied the clinical features and factors related to outcomes of MPLC patients using the database of surgically resected lung cancer (LC) cases compiled by the Japanese Joint Committee of Lung Cancer Registry. From the 18 978 registered cases, 9689 patients with clinical stage I non-small-cell lung cancer who achieved complete resection were extracted. Tumors were defined as synchronous MPLC when multiple LC was simultaneously resected or treatment was carried out within 2 years after the initial surgery; metachronous MPLC was defined as second LC treated more than 2 years after the initial surgery. Of these cases, 579 (6.0%) were synchronous MPLC and 477 (5.0%) metachronous MPLC, with 51 overlapping cases. Female sex, nonsmoker, low consolidation-tumor ratio (CTR), and adenocarcinoma were significantly more frequent in the synchronous MPLC group, whereas patients with metachronous MPLC had higher frequencies of male sex, smoker, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and nonadenocarcinoma. There was no significant difference in survival rate between patients with and without synchronous or metachronous MPLC. Age, gender, CTR for second LC, and histological combination of primary and second LC were prognostic indicators for both types of MPLC. Logistic regression analysis showed that female sex, history of malignant disease other than LC, and COPD were risk factors for MPLC incidence. The present findings could have major implications regarding MPLC diagnosis and identification of independent prognostic factors, and provide valuable information for postoperative management of patients with MPLC.
ASJC Scopus subject areas