The results of in vitro chemosensitivity testing using the MTT assay of tumor cells from 140 patients were analyzed with reference to the clinical antitumor effects of the chemotherapy. One hundred and twenty‐four (88.6%) of 140 specimens were successfully tested by the method of Mosmann (J Immunol Methods 65:55–63, 1983) with some modifications. When the results of the assay were compared with the clinical effects of chemotherapy in 22 patients with remaining measurable tumor lesions, the overall prediction rate was 86.4% (19/22). Among 31 patients with stage III‐V gastric and colorectal carcinomas without remaining measurable tumor lesions, the survival rate of nine patients treated with drugs shown to be effective in the assay was significantly (P < 0.05) better than that of 22 patients treated with drugs shown to be ineffective.
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