Background: Male breast cancer (MBC) is rare; however, its incidence is increasing. There have been no large-scale reports on the clinicopathological characteristics of MBC in Japan. Methods: We investigated patients diagnosed with breast cancer in the Japanese National Clinical Database (NCD) between January 2012 and December 2018. Results: A total of 594,316 cases of breast cancer, including 3780 MBC (0.6%) and 590,536 female breast cancer (FBC) (99.4%), were evaluated. The median age at MBC and FBC diagnosis was 71 (45–86, 5–95%) and 60 years (39–83) (p < 0.001), respectively. MBC cases had a higher clinical stage than FBC cases: 7.4 vs. 13.3% stage 0, 37.2 vs. 44.3% stage I, 25.6 vs. 23.9% stage IIA, 8.8 vs. 8.4% stage IIB, 1.9 vs. 2.4% stage IIIA, 10.1 vs. 3.3% stage IIIB, and 1.1 vs. 1.3% stage IIIC (p < 0.001). Breast-conserving surgery was more frequent in FBC (14.6 vs. 46.7%, p = 0.02). Axillary lymph node dissection was more frequent in MBC cases (32.9 vs. 25.2%, p < 0.001). Estrogen receptor(ER)-positive disease was observed in 95.6% of MBC and 85.3% of FBC cases (p < 0.001). The HER2-positive disease rates were 9.5% and 15.7%, respectively (p < 0.001). Comorbidities were more frequent in MBC (57.3 vs. 32.8%) (p < 0.001). Chemotherapy was less common in MBC, while endocrine therapy use was similar in ER-positive MBC and FBC. Perioperative radiation therapy was performed in 14.3% and 44.3% of cases. Conclusion: Japanese MBC had an older age of onset, were more likely to be hormone receptor-positive disease, and received less perioperative chemotherapy than FBC.
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