Biliary tract carcinoma (BTC) has a poor prognosis. However, no standard chemotherapy regimens have been established for inoperable cases or cases of recurrence after surgical resection. Recent molecular biological analysis has shown that epidermal growth factor receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, vascular endothelial growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, c-Met and transforming growth factor-beta could be potential targets for therapy of BTC. It is considered that these molecules are involved in the carcinogenesis, invasion, and progression of BTC. Furthermore, immunohistochemical overexpression of these targets is associated with several clinicopathological factors. This article reviews the clinicopathological significance of these growth factors and their receptors.
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