Comparative Functional Morphology of Human and Chimpanzee Feet Based on Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis

Kohta Ito, Tomoya Nakamura, Ryo Suzuki, Takuo Negishi, Motoharu Oishi, Takeo Nagura, Masahiro Jinzaki, Naomichi Ogihara

研究成果: Article査読

5 被引用数 (Scopus)


To comparatively investigate the morphological adaptation of the human foot for achieving robust and efficient bipedal locomotion, we develop three-dimensional finite element models of the human and chimpanzee feet. Foot bones and the outer surface of the foot are extracted from computer tomography images and meshed with tetrahedral elements. The ligaments and plantar fascia are represented by tension-only spring elements. The contacts between the bones and between the foot and ground are solved using frictionless and Coulomb friction contact algorithms, respectively. Physiologically realistic loading conditions of the feet during quiet bipedal standing are simulated. Our results indicate that the center of pressure (COP) is located more anteriorly in the human foot than in the chimpanzee foot, indicating a larger stability margin in bipedal posture in humans. Furthermore, the vertical free moment generated by the coupling motion of the calcaneus and tibia during axial loading is larger in the human foot, which can facilitate the compensation of the net yaw moment of the body around the COP during bipedal locomotion. Furthermore, the human foot can store elastic energy more effectively during axial loading for the effective generation of propulsive force in the late stance phase. This computational framework for a comparative investigation of the causal relationship among the morphology, kinematics, and kinetics of the foot may provide a better understanding regarding the functional significance of the morphological features of the human foot.

ジャーナルFrontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
出版ステータスPublished - 2022 1月 13

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • バイオテクノロジー
  • バイオエンジニアリング
  • 組織学
  • 生体医工学


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