Background: Correlations between upright CT and pulmonary function test (PFT) measurements, and differences in lung/lobe/airway volumes between supine and standing positions in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain unknown. Objectives: The study aimed to evaluate correlations between lung/airway volumes on both supine and upright CT and PFT measurements in patients with COPD, and compare CT-based inspiratory/expiratory lung/lobe/airway volumes between the two positions. Methods: Forty-eight patients with COPD underwent both conventional supine and upright CT in a randomized order during inspiration and expiration breath-holds, and PFTs within 2 h. We measured the lung/lobe/airway volumes on both CT. Results: The correlation coefficients between total lung volumes on inspiratory CT in supine/standing position and PFT total lung capacity and vital capacity were 0.887/0.920 and 0.711/0.781, respectively; between total lung volumes on expiratory CT in supine/standing position and PFT functional residual capacity and residual volume, 0.676/0.744 and 0.713/0.739, respectively; and between airway volume on inspiratory CT in supine/standing position and PFT forced expiratory volume in 1 s, 0.471/0.524, respectively. Inspiratory/expiratory bilateral upper and right lower lobe, bilateral lung, and airway volumes were significantly higher in the standing than supine position (3.6-21.2% increases, all p < 0.05); however, inspiratory/expiratory right middle lobe volumes were significantly lower in the standing position (4.6%/15.9% decreases, respectively, both p < 0.001). Conclusions: Upright CT-based volumes were more correlated with PFT measurements than supine CT-based volumes in patients with COPD. Unlike other lobes and airway, inspiratory/expiratory right middle lobe volumes were significantly lower in the standing than supine position.
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