Objective: The study compared the treatment outcomes of surgery versus radiotherapy, including concurrent chemoradiotherapy, in stage Ib2–IIb cervical adenocarcinoma patients in Japan. Methods: Of 57,470 patients diagnosed with stage I–IV cervical cancer from January 2001– December 2011, 1,932 patients with stage Ib2–IIb cervical adenocarcinoma were initially treated by surgery or radiotherapy. The primary endpoint was 5-year overall survival (OS) in all and 614 propensity score-matched (PSM) patients (307 per group). We compared OS and prognosis factors based on age, primary stage, and treatment arm. Results: In Japan, >80% (n=1,573) of stage Ib2–IIb cervical adenocarcinoma patients underwent surgery. The 5-year OS of surgery vs. radiotherapy groups were 82.1% (n=704) vs. 79.7% (n=59) (hazard ratio [HR]=1.494; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.826–2.702; p=0.181) for stage Ib2, 76.6% (n=239) vs. 66.7% (n=54) (HR=1.679; 95% CI=0.986–2.858; p=0.053) for stage IIa, and 71.1% (n=630) vs. 58.9% (n=246) (HR=1.711; 95% CI=1.341–2.184; p<0.001) for stage IIb. In 614 PSM patients balanced for age and carcinoma stage Ib2–IIb, the 5-year OS of surgery vs. radiation groups was 73.0% (n=307) vs. 65.5% (n=307) (HR=1.394; 95% CI=1.044–1.860; p=0.023). In multivariable analysis, age (HR=1.293; 95% CI=1.045–1.601; p=0.018), treatment arm, radiotherapy (HR=1.556; 95% CI=1.253–1.933; p<0.001), and stage IIb (HR=1.783; 95% CI=1.443–2.203; p=0.018) were independent prognosis factors for 5-year OS in stage Ib2–IIb adenocarcinoma patients. Conclusion: Age (>65 years), treatment arm (radiotherapy), and stage IIb significantly affect OS in cervical adenocarcinoma patients. Surgery may be considered for <65-year-old patients with stage IIb adenocarcinoma.
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