The skin serves as the interface between the human body and the environment and interacts with the microbial community. The skin microbiota consists of microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, mites, and viruses, and they fluctuate depending on the microenvironment defined by anatomical location and physiological function. The balance of interactions between the host and microbiota plays a pivotal role in the orchestration of skin homeostasis; however, the disturbance of the balance due to an alteration in the microbial communities, namely, dysbiosis, leads to various skin disorders. Recent developments in sequencing technology have provided new insights into the structure and function of skin microbial communities. Based on high-throughput sequencing analysis, a growing body of evidence indicates that a new treatment using live bacteria, termed bacteriotherapy, is a feasible therapeutic option for cutaneous diseases caused by dysbiosis. In particular, the administration of specific bacterial strains has been investigated as an exclusionary treatment strategy against pathogens associated with chronic skin disorders, whereas the safety, efficacy, and sustainability of this therapeutic approach using isolated live bacteria need to be further explored. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the skin microbiota, as well as therapeutic strategies using characterized strains of live bacteria for skin inflammatory diseases. The ecosystem formed by interactions between the host and skin microbial consortium is still largely unexplored; however, advances in our understanding of the function of the skin microbiota at the strain level will lead to the development of new therapeutic methods.
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